High-fat diet, adipokines and low-grade inflammation are associated with disrupted tendon healing: a systematic review of preclinical studies
Silvia Elli, Gabriele Schiaffini, Marina Macchi, Matteo Spezia, Emanuele Chisari, Nicola Maffulli
The aetiopathogenesis of tendinopathy is uncertain, but inflammation may play a role in the early phase of tendinopathy and in tendon healing response. We investigated the most up-to-date evidence about the association between obesity, high-fat diet and tendinopathy, focusing on the role of adipokines, inflammatory pathways and molecular changes.
A systematic review was performed searching PubMed, Embase and Cochrane Library databases following the PRISMA guidelines. We included studies of any level of evidence published in peer-reviewed journals. The risk of bias (SIRCLE) was assessed, as was the methodological quality (CAMARADES) of the included studies. We excluded all the articles with a high risk of bias and/or low quality after the assessment. After applying the inclusion and exclusion criteria, we included 14 studies of medium or high quality.
A high-fat diet negatively affects tendon quality, increasing the risk of rupture and tendinopathy.
Controversial evidence exists on both tendon fat infiltration secondary to a dysregulation of the lipid metabolism and of a molecular effect of inflammatory pathways.
The secretion of adipokines is strictly related to fat ingestion and body composition and can potentially act on tendon physiology and injury.
Adipokines, low-grade inflammation and fat intake play a role in disrupting tendon healing and setting up tendinopathy. Further high-quality research is needed to better define the molecular pathways involved.